Saturday, July 18, 2020

8 Necessary Considerations When Writing Study Limitations and Alternatives

8 Necessary Considerations When Writing Study Limitations and Alternatives You will look forward to your research paper being read by the specific audience for which it is targetedâ€"professors, experts in the field, publication editors, etc. And you will, of course, be gratified if and when your paper receives significant interest from other constituentsâ€"researchers with the same or similar interests, students, or even readers from the general public. Whatever the case, listing your study limitations with accompanying discussion must be included in your manuscript.The primary section on limitations is best located in the closing stages of a paper. However, you may refer to limitations during the course of a paper when they are pertinent. In all instances, discuss limitations clearly and concisely, pointing out the reasons for their inclusion. Your honest appraisal of how limitations bear on your writing will only add to the impact and legitimacy of your writing. Moreover, you are aiding other researchers in setting their parameters for future writing.You should avoid certain mistakes when listing your limitations and alternatives. To put it another way, become familiar with the primary pitfalls associated with research and writing so that you can articulate the limitations appropriately and accurately. Here are 8 significant factors that constitute study limitations and caution that applies to each.Become familiar with the primary pitfalls associated with research and writing so that you can articulate the limitations appropriately and accurately. Photo Andrey Zvyagintsev from Unsplash.1. Sample selection/profile/sizeYour sample participants must reflect the population you would be expected to approach for your particular study. In this regard, your ability to establish contact in some way with suitable respondents is critical. Otherwise, you cannot have suitable representation for your findings. Consequently, you will have to formulate an alternate methodology for your research that ensures reasonable findings while overcoming thi s limitation. Ultimately, when you do have issues with narrow access, break down the causes for this limitation.Because larger sample sizes are commonly required in order to apply findings to the larger populace, be careful to use a sample size that reflects the depth of your study. For example, if you were researching the annual impact of thousands of visitors to your city for a major cultural event, and you only engaged with 50 participants, you would have obvious issues with your findings.2. Scarcity of existing researchIt is not unusual to undertake research on a subject for which there is scant previous information or no prior findings at all. Of course, you must recognize whether this may simply be your inability to have access to, or to track down, previously existing writings. This inaccessibility would definitely constitute a limitation that you would have to point out.However, if there is a real lack of previous literature, your task is certainly going to be more involved. Nonetheless, you will also be presented with an opportunity to pave your own groundwork and to establish yourself at the head of new research. This can provide you with the opportunity to add meaningfully to the limited findings to date and you might even formulate important methodology for researching the topic at hand. You can create the need and desire for future, ongoing inquiry in the subject area.3. Time restrictions/TimelinessWorkers in all walks of life are continually faced with deadlines. It is a paramount fact; writers know this all too well. A manuscript is assigned, the project and attendant methodology are planned, the research must be carried out, and the finished manuscript is expected for deliveryâ€"on time. You need look no further than at the other sections in this article to see that, although the limitations and issues that are discussed herein have their own particular issues and challenges, they could also all be included under the discussion of time restrict ions.Occasionally, an extension of a due date may be granted, but to rely on the possibility of an extension is to invite problems. Consequently, time restriction is a limitation. It would be easy to suggest that you should only accept writing offers that you can complete by the stated deadline. Yet, multiple issues can impact the best planningâ€" unexpected delays, longer-than-anticipated research, travel, etc. Furthermore, it is often difficult, or simply not an option, for a dedicated writer to turn down a provocative assignmentâ€"and, hopefully, a reasonably lucrative projectâ€"because of the possible limits on time. If you commit to a project, and if time constraints adversely affect the completion of your manuscript, you must list this in your discussion of limitations and point out the necessity for continuing research on the subject.While time restriction is a key factor in the research process, timeliness is also significant. In carrying out your research, it may be become apparent that many or most of the resources and data that you are studying are essentially out of date. To rely principally on this data is counterproductive and this is a problematic limitation. Still, this would also present potentially exciting opportunities for renewed and fresh research on a subjectâ€"something you should articulate in your discussion of limitations.4. Process of data collectionYour success in amassing data may be tempered by the fact that you know of certain alternate perspectives on the subject that you will be unable to address in your research. Instances like this can result in the exclusion of important variables or can preclude adding critical questions and surveys. When discussing your limitations, you can emphasize the importance of adding these missing components in future research.Sometimes researchers, out of necessity, must collect data in areas or locations that are not conducive to the processâ€"for example, bustling airports, sports venues, or re staurants. These locations provide many distractions and there are no guarantees that participants will be giving you their full attention. This is another limitation related to process and it will be good to suggest that future studies ensure that site planning is addressed accordingly.5. Unanticipated variablesLimitations out of ones control are not uncommon. A researcher is certainly capable of making a mistake, despite his or her expertise and dedication to the task at hand. Unforeseen technical problems may occur or a researcher may simply have health problems during the course of research. These and any number of other unexpected events can infringe on the research process, causing delays or even stoppages.Researchers in science fields often run into issues relating to seasonal differences, the environment, or some missing findings among huge amounts of data. These or similar issues can however be found in most any area of research. For instance, interviewing participants on i dentical topics, but in varying locations, can yield results that are surprisingly different or seemingly of little relation to one another. Is this a true representation of the surveys, or does physical location actually have such a significant impact on the process?It is also possible that research carried out by teams of two or more people may result in differing conclusions or be impacted by tension and even personal relationships. In this case, now the results are open to significantly more debate and assessment.These unanticipated limitations need to be mentioned in any research writing. They may also be among the hardest to quantify and to rectify. Nonetheless, these limitations must be discussed. As in all cases, it is far more beneficial than sweeping them under the carpet.6. Insufficient training and cooperationIt is not unusual for a writer or team of writers to tackle a new project despite the fact that they do not yet possess the requisite research skills. Nothing notab le can result if these writers are not prepared to produce fresh new findings of their own. Moreover, it is critical that an adequate degree of cooperation exists between the researchers and the constituents that they approach. Strong interaction with professional agencies, government offices, and business establishments will ensure a satisfactory flow of information and data.Deficiencies in training and constructive cooperation constitute substantial limitations. You should take the opportunity to suggest a concise training program for underprepared researchers before they begin their serious work. Moreover, it would behoove you to suggest specific areas of research, to clarify the breadth of the work, and to point out the rewards of successful cooperation in research.You should take the opportunity to suggest a concise training program for underprepared researchers before they begin their serious work. Photo by Startup Stock Photos from Pexels.7. FundingThe funding of a writing pr oject can be a challenge because there are often significant associated expenses. Researchers may need to acquire specific equipment (hardware, related products, etc.) or software that is essential in compiling statistics and various other data. Researchers occasionally must hire assistants and it is even possible that participants in a study will have to be remunerated. Financial difficulties during the course of your work are considered limitations. When discussing this, let it be known that the financial restraints have affected your work. You can suggest that future studies of the subject must take into account the real costs of such an undertaking.8. Human nature/Personal and cultural attitudesFinally, human nature and personal beliefs can impact a researchers work, adversely affecting the accuracy and integrity of a study. For example, a writer is hired to study the training procedures and resulting benefits of service dogs for people with disabilities or special needs. Howeve r, this writer, because of his or her steadfast views on animal cruelty and attendant issues, may inherently be unable to treat the subject fairly and properly, despite the fact that service dogs are universally admired and that little or no harm ever comes to them.It is not unusual for researchers to skew information and findings to conform to their views or leanings. As a result, the accuracy and validity of the research is compromised. It is your responsibility to vet your sources as well as you can to determine if the findings are supported appropriately. If do you indeed perceive that there are questions about some of your sources, you should mention this in your limitations and discuss how you handled this situationâ€"either by correcting inaccuracies, by focusing predominantly on the most reliable sources, or by sharing other methods you used to offset these issues.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Ideals of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Mao, and Stalin Essay

1. Scientific Socialism Scientific socialism is the type of socialism that Engels uses to refer to Marx’s analysis of political history. Scientific socialism exams social and economic methods’ using the scientific method and it tries to mimic the hard sciences like chemistry and physics. Scientific socialism is different from utopian socialism because it takes into consideration the historical developments of men while utopian socialism does not. According to Engels when referring to utopian socialist, â€Å"To all these, socialism is the expression of absolute truth, reason and justice, and has only to be discovered to conquer all the world by virtue of its own power. And as absolute truth is independent of time, space, and of the†¦show more content†¦What the old method failed to do however, was explain how capitalism exploited workers and the exploration began. It just criticized capitalism. Marx’s explanation of socialism answered these questions allowing him to understa nd the details of capitalism. Since Marx looked at socialism from a scientific perspective, it enabled him to examine capitalism from an historical perspective and its reason for emerging. In addition, it allowed Marx to make a prediction for capitalism, which was its downfall. Also to Engels, Marx was able to determine that the possessing class was able to constantly increase their capital by exploiting the working class because the value of the commodity would exceed the cost of labor. By today’s standards scientific is considered to be something that can form testable explanations and predictions. Therefore, Marx’s scientific socialism by today’s standards is not considered scientific. One reason is that looking at historical developments does not test or disprove any kind of trends. Since countries very in historical development, it is difficult to take socialism, apply it every country, and expect the same outcome and trends. Another reason scient ific socialism is no longer considered scientific is because it cannot predict or explain particular outcome of capitalism or socialism. For example, Marx predicted that a capitalist state would eventually emerge into a socialist state and capitalism all together wouldShow MoreRelatedCommunism: Its Origins and World Impact Essay1025 Words   |  5 Pagesit also left its mark on four continents. Communism has been around for quite some time. It all began with Plato (369 to 421 BC), who introduced the concept of an ideal city in his republic. People would not be corrupted by money and power but would prevail in wisdom, reason and justice. At the time Plato brought about his ideal city, he was rejecting the foundation of Athenian democracy that existed in his day. (Melchert 151) Plato believed that there were only a few who were fit to rule butRead More Modern Communism: Marx, Engles, Lenin, and Stalin Essay2106 Words   |  9 PagesKarl Marx never saw his ideals and beliefs, as the founding father of communist thought, implemented in the world and society because he died in 1883.1 The communist ideology did not rise to power until the beginning of the 20th century. Then it would be implemented and put into practice in the largest country in the world producing a concept that would control half of the world’s population in less than 50 years. The Manifesto of the Com munist Party, written by Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels, searchedRead MoreMarxism and Communism Christian Communism4953 Words   |  20 PagesIntroduction Communism is a social structure in which classes are abolished and property is commonly controlled, as well as a political philosophy and social movement that advocates and aims to create such a society.Karl Marx, the father of communist thought, posited that communism would be the final stage in society, which would be achieved through a proletarian revolution and only possible after a socialist stage develops the productive forces, leading to a superabundance of goods and servicesRead MoreKarl Marx And Friedrich Engels1626 Words   |  7 PagesKarl Marx and Friedrich Engels, the infamous villains of capitalism, were authors who wrote The Communist Manifesto. Their theory argues that class struggles or the exploitation of one class by another will give rise to a new world order in which society as a whole will take control of their own destines. This involves the battles between the proletarians and bourgeoisie, communism and democracy, and final capitalism and socialism. However, since the times of Marx and Engel communism has been slowlyRead MoreA Brief Look at Karl Marx769 Words   |  3 PagesA person does not have to positively impact the world to be influential. Karl Marx certainly left a mark on the world, but whether his impact was revolutionary or simply detrimental is up to debate. Marx was largely influenced by the ideas of Enlightenment figures like Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and Hegel. Most know him in regard to his writing the Communist Manifesto and its influence on revolutions that led to the formation of notoriously oppressive communist states. His ideas form the base ofRead MoreCommunist Leaders of the 20th Century5824 Words   |  24 PagesCentury Vladimir Lenin, Ho Chi Minh and Moa Zedong were all leaders who were visionaries and revolutionaries who changed the world. They used communist ideals and propaganda to engage peasants and the working class to fight for freedom and to preserve their cultural values. Each leader and his followers successfully changed the economic and political structure of their countries as well as influencing the rest of the world for decades to come. Vladimir Lenin – Russian Revolutionary Read MoreLenin13422 Words   |  54 PagesVladimir Ilyich Lenin Ð’Ð »Ã °Ã ´Ã ¸Ã ¼Ã ¸Ã'€ ИÐ »Ã'Å'Ð ¸Ã'‡ ЛÐ µÃ ½Ã ¸Ã ½ | | Lenin in 1920 | Chairman of the Council of People s Commissars of the Soviet Union (Premier of the Soviet Union) | In office 30 December 1922  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 21 January 1924 | Preceded by | Position created | Succeeded by | Alexei Rykov | Chairman of the Council of People s Commissars of the Russian SFSR | In office 8 November 1917  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 21 January 1924 | Preceded by | Position created | Succeeded by | Alexei Rykov | Member of the PolitburoRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagescollectivist over the religious, the commercial, and the individualist. They annihilated cathedrals, abbeys, fortifications, and ceremonial gates and towers and did their utmost to erect idols to themselves and their creed (1995, 3–4). In 1928, as Stalin introduced the first of his five-year plans for Russian economic development, primarily through industrialization, and began to do away with private farms by collectivizing agriculture in the 1930s, rural people fled the countryside and migrated

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Mary Shelley s Frankenstein - Original Writing - 1489 Words

Intro: â€Å"I was dependent on none and related to none. The path of my departure was free, and there was none to lament my annihilation†¦ What did this mean? Who was I? What was I? Whence did I come? What was my destination? These questions continually recurred, but I was unable to solve them (Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein).† Mary Shelley’s book, Frankenstein, parallels her own experiences. Shelley’s mother died in childbirth, and she was left â€Å"dependent on none and related to none.† Her father, William Godwin, abandoned his daughter emotionally when he remarried a woman who treated Mary poorly. Shelley often searched for an understanding of who she was. She did not have a mother to give her an education, so Mary taught herself by seeking†¦show more content†¦Clare and Shelley both use negative diction, juxtaposing extreme terminology within the same sentence, and long, rambling sentences within their writings. John Clare and Mary Shelley’s use of similar stylistic devices illustrates how loneliness makes one turn to death, either suicidal or murderous, due to humans’ innate need to be connected to others; without a connection, isolation creates insurmountable suffering. Diction: Clare, the author of I am, and Shelley, the author of Frankenstein, both use despondent diction to represent the agony of loneliness; ultimately forewarning the reader that without love, one’s existence is lifeless and leads to doom and destruction. When Shelley uses terms like â€Å"catastrophe† or â€Å"wretch† to describe the creation of the monster, she refers to the physical appearance of the creature, and the emotional turmoil of Victor Frankenstein and the creature, as well. The monster is abandoned by Frankenstein due to his hideous stature. Shelley plays with contrasts such as the creature’s mouth, whose teeth are â€Å"pearly white† but whose lips are â€Å"black†. The eyes, which ironically are the windows to man’s emotions, are colorless. The hair is â€Å"lustrous†, almost sensual, but the complexion is â€Å"shrivelled†, like an elderly man on his death bed. She juxtaposes Victor’s arrogance of having the brilliance to create a gift reserved to G-d, with his deliverance of the devil. When Shelley says that the skin â€Å"scarcely† covers

Legal Implications of Social Media and the Hiring Process Free Essays

MBA 610 Final Paper Legal Implications of Social Media and the Hiring Process Tammy Rider October 17, 2012 Social media has become one of the most important tools in business practices. Companies can advertise their services and products for nothing or next to nothing, network with other businesses, generate new business, connect with their customers, and provide a valuable research tool. It has changed the face of business as we know it. We will write a custom essay sample on Legal Implications of Social Media and the Hiring Process or any similar topic only for you Order Now With this wonderful innovation comes responsibility. Employers and employees alike must face new rules and laws associated with their social media practices. One such practice that has become important in the business world is the use of social media during the hiring process. Some companies even go so far as to request job applicants for their username and passwords for such sites such as Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter. Where do the rights of employers and the rights of employees fit into this new high tech world? The legal system faces new challenges every day regarding this relatively young business quandary. Where should the lines of privacy be drawn? How much social media information should an employer be permitted to use during the screening process for hiring a new employee? It has just recently come to the media’s attention that some employers ask their job applicants for their Facebook login information and password. However, the reality is that employers have been using social media to investigate these applicants for years. In 2011, Reppler, a social media monitoring service, conducted a survey of 300 hiring professionals to learn if, when, and how they are using social media to screen job applicants. The study found that 91% of recruiters or hiring managers use social networking sites to screen prospective employees. Out of these recruiters and hiring managers, 69% revealed that they have denied employment to a job applicant due to something they found on an applicant’s social networking site (1). Employers, however, should take caution when using the information they find to make a decision whether to hire an applicant or throw their application in the trash. It would seem that technology is outpacing the law in this area; however, employers should very seriously review the information they find and be sure that it does not lead to a liability under the Fair Credit Reporting Act, or some other state or federal employment discrimination laws. The Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) states that an employer must provide a disclosure that a consumer report or background check will be performed to their job applicants, and should obtain signed authorization by the applicant to proceed with this research. It is also the duty of the company to provide notice to the job applicant that they will take adverse action to not hire them before the company actually takes that action, and provide a post-adverse action notice (2). It is interesting to note that these FCRA requirements do not apply to employers who perform their own background checks without using a consumer-reporting agency to obtain the information. Human resources hiring managers that perform a social media search on a job applicant are not bound to these FCRA regulations to provide disclosure and gain consent from the applicant. This is where it gets tricky! Although a hiring manager may not have to adhere to the FCRA regulations, they may still be confronted with other state and federal laws regarding employment discrimination and privacy. In the past, employers have been very careful to not invade employee privacy, base any employment decisions on protected characteristics, or ask unlawful questions during the interview process. In the past few years though, employers have been using social media to screen applicants on a regular basis, whether formally or informally. By performing these pre-employment research screenings on job applicants using social media profiles, employers are setting themselves up to discrimination claims under federal, state, and local laws. Since this area is still fuzzy and grey as far as the law is concerned, employers need to stay informed and educated to protect themselves from potential lawsuits. Consulting with an attorney who specializes in this field would be a wise decision. As the laws evolve, so must the employer’s behaviors. By reviewing social networking profiles and information, employers are learning about job applicants’ religious beliefs, marital status, family relationships, race, ethnicity, medical conditions, and other information that cannot be used to make an employment-based decision. This is information that is considered as protected characteristics even though an applicant or employee has made it public on a social media profile. As a result, employers must take care when performing such research. Ultimately, should a discrimination claim arise, the employer will have the burden of proof to demonstrate that the decision to reject a job applicant was based on a legitimate non-discriminatory reason, rather than the fact that the employer learned of the job applicant’s sexual orientation, the projected due date of the job applicant’s baby, or any other protected characteristic. So the question that persists is how can we make use of social media without disrupting any discrimination laws? Some of the job-related information found in a profile may be highly valuable in determining an applicant’s qualifications for the job. One practical method is to only allow someone who is not involved in the hiring of the specific position to be the person who conducts the social media background check. Then, when the social media background check is completed, that person can summarize the job-related information that may be helpful in considering the applicant, and can make no mention of the â€Å"protected† information (race, religion, medical condition, etc. that would otherwise get the employer into trouble. This way, the hiring manager, or ultimate decision-maker, receives only the job-related information, and can demonstrate that the information unknown to him or her had nothing to do with the decision to hire another candidate. Furthermore, before the job opening is even posted, employers should be clear about what they are really looking for in a social media background check, and whether it is necessary for the particular position. For example, the importance and extent of a social media background may depend on the position the company needs to fill (for example, a CFO position versus a seasonal stockroom employee). Certainly, employers should be doing enough pre-hiring due diligence to avoid potential claims of negligent hiring, but they must balance those concerns with finding out information that exposes them to liability for discrimination. There exists yet another level of privacy invasion that some businesses have been practicing. Asking for a job applicant’s login and password information goes beyond simply surfing the web for research purposes. Some hiring managers get around this request by having the job candidate log into their Facebook account, for instance, during an in-person interview. These potential candidates are put into a compromising position. Should they refuse this request or just do it to keep them in the running for the job? Do these employer requests violate the federal Stored Communications Act or the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act? The laws surrounding the Stored Communications Act prohibit intentional access to electronic information without authorization or intentionally exceeding that authorization, 18 U. S. C.  § 2701. The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act prohibits intentional access to a computer to obtain information without authorization, 18 U. S. C.  § 1030(a) (2) (C). Are these laws being violated when companies request login information from job applicants? It would certainly be a violation if the company broke into an account to access the information without authorization. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission will have to determine whether employers who request this login information are violating anti-discrimination statutes. State legislators are beginning to introduce legislation that aims to prohibit this practice. In April 2012, Maryland was first to introduce a bill to ban employers from demanding Facebook or other social networking login information and passwords. Other states have followed or are currently following suit with bills of their own. For instance, California introduced the â€Å"Social Media Privacy Act† to legislature which would protect the social media privacy rights of students and employees (3). The law is attempting to catch up with technology, beginning with the states and expanding federally in the future. It is in this writer’s opinion that employers should consider the non-legal ramifications of this social media dilemma in addition to the legal implications. By demanding this private information they are setting themselves up to lose some of their best employees or potential employees simply because they believe in their rights to privacy and refuse to give access to their social media credentials. Employers should weigh what is most important to them and evaluate what they stand to lose. Employee morale may suffer and an environment of distrust may take precedence. These conditions are not conducive to a healthy workplace resulting in poor performance and poor productivity. Is this really worth the tiny bit of extra information that may be revealed by invading a person’s social media profile? Businesses must stay on top of developing legislation to protect themselves. Job seekers should also remain educated on their rights. It is sad to think that a person may find themselves wanted a job so badly they would be willing to hand over any information that is requested of them. We will probably see the emergence of a new department in most companies. This department will be responsible for technology privacy education and enforcement which could save the business millions of dollars in lawsuits. The future of technology isn’t slowing down one bit. The law may never catch up, but it will keep pushing forward to protect the rights of employers and employees. Social media is just that: social. What a person does outside of the workplace is, in most cases, of no concern to the business. As they say, don’t mix business with your personal life and vice versa. If we allow that to happen, where will the line be drawn? The line must be drawn now. Works Cited (1) Swallow, Erica, â€Å"How Recruiters Use Social Networks to Screen Candidates†, October 23, 2011, http://mashable. com/2011/10/23/how-recruiters-use-social-networks-to-screen-candidates-infographic. (2) http://www. ftc. gov/os/statutes/031224fcra. pdf (3) http://epic. org/privacy/workplace/ How to cite Legal Implications of Social Media and the Hiring Process, Essays

Sunday, April 26, 2020

WICCA an Example by

WICCA Thesis Statement Due to misleading information which is easily accessible from several sources such as the internet, print media as well as electronic media, Wicca has grossly been misunderstood by many. However this is a harmless religion and practitioners are ordinary people with normal human ambitions. Need essay sample on "WICCA" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Wicca is a nature oriented religion founded and popularized in the U.K by Gerald Gardner in the 1940s (www.religioustolerance.org), it is based on ancient beliefs and practices with an aim of ensuring the survival of witchcraft values believed to have existed centuries ago. This paper wishes to counter largely believed claims that Wicca is a devil worshiping religion. It will look at the origin of the religion, analyze some of the counter claims and their weaknesses and then present facts as they are, hoping that these facts will state beyond a reasonable doubt the true values and nature of the Wiccans. Being a member of Wicca religion, I know that it an earth based religion that seeks to bring to life many of the traditionally held practices and beliefs. According to www.religioustolerance.org it is a religion based on the symbols, seasonal days of celebration, beliefs and deities of ancient Celtic society. It seeks to revisit the prehistoric period when humanity had a great reverence for the forces of nature. It owes its beginnings to the Paleolithic period where it existed together with other religions in Europe and is believed to have had a great impact on the Christian practices (www.withway.net). This is before millions of followers were persecuted by the Roman Catholics for being perceived to be witches, pagans, and having satanic tendencies. Our Customers Frequently Tell EssayLab professionals: Who wants to write a paper for me? I was looking for a reliable coursework writing service online Specialists propose: Get Help In Writing An Essay From 1950s Wicca religion has witnessed a rapid expansion and growth in Europe and America, capturing the souls of thousands of people who wish to rebel from the mainstream, which are too rigid and conservative. majority of people in the world today either from ignorance or naivety exhibit open hostility to Wiccans believing that it is a devil worshiping and satanic oriented cult. There is a self righteous notion among, especially among the Christians, that anything that doesnt seek to profess the Christian faith is satanic. They tend to have an ill-advised view that there exist only two super-forces: Almighty God and Satan. They vehemently deny the existence of any other super human force. This belief probably emanates from a widely perceived notion during the medieval ages that was lumping witchcraft and Satanism in the same basket; this is still the widely held belief and has been instilled in most peoples minds through horror movies and books (Bowes. S. 2004 Pg 16-45). This belief may also have been perpetuated by the solitary and secretive lives of most of the Wiccans. However, these claims are widely tolerated by most Wiccans for they know that it is based on ignorance and lack of proper knowledge. On the contrary, Wiccans are not satanic. We believe in a supreme being (Goddess and her consort, a God), who although is not similar to the Christian God is dissimilar to Satan. Contrary to the belief that our actions are aimed at harming others; Wiccans have a code of behavior that stipulates that Wiccans are not meant to harm others. All actions and practices are allowed as long as they harm no one (Drew. A. J 2003, 24-60). Wicca is founded on witchcraft and magic. Once initiated a member is referred to as a priest or priestess. There exists however, in the modern practices, no central authority or dogma. An individual can practice either individually or with a community, but occasionally is expected to meet with other Wiccans and celebrate on nights of the full moon or during the eight sabbats (www.witchway.net). For others, they arrange themselves into small groups of maybe 12 members where they are led by a priest or a priestess in a rotational basis or as the group shall deem it fit. These groups bear no evil or satanic motives but are merely a source of religious enrichment. Satanism is evil and is meant to spread terror to the community. On the contrary, Wiccans are advised to shun evil and any harmful intentions to the humanity. Through their code of ethics or rule of behavior called Wiccan Rede: An it harm none, do what thou wilt meaning that a Wiccan should exercise caution in all that he or she does to ensure that it hurts no one. This is indifferent to the general stand of Satanism that advocates for domination and manipulation of the rest of the humanity (Grimass R. 2003 16-99). This code of ethics emanates from the Law of Three that states that for every deed one commits to another, either positive or negative, shall be paid back in three fold. This ensures that Williams take responsibility of their deeds and misdeeds; this is a big distinction from Satanism While Satanism is a dialectical opposition to the Creator as Christians and Muslims believe, we Wiccans believe in the existence of a God and a Goddess, who exist and are manifested in the creations of nature and that is why these creations are honored and respected greatly. According to www.wicca.com, this belief creates a reverence and respect to the environment and all life upon the Earth. The claim that Wiccans are devil worshipers are totally misguided and lacking any basis. Wiccan and Satanism has no connection at all, in fact, we believe that Satan is a Christian creation as we have no room for him. Witches strictly adhere to the three laws that guide their beliefs and practices believing that we are to take responsibility of our actions. This truly is not Satanism. References: Bruce A. Robinson: Wicca an Introduction. Religious Tolerance.org Ontario consultants on Religions Tolerance. March 25, 2004 Witch and Witchcraft: What is Wicca, 2006 Bowes, Susan: The Wiccan Handbook. N.Y: Sterling Publishing Company. 2004, 16-45 Drew A. J. A Wiccan Bible: Exploring the Mysteries of the Craft from birth to Summerland, NJ: New Page Books. 2003. 24-60 Grimassi, Raven. Encyclopedia of Wiccan Witchcraft. St. Paul. Minn: Llewellyn Publications, 2003, 16-99 Herne. What is Wicca? The Celtic Connection.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Religion in Japan and China Review Essay

Religion in Japan and China Review Essay Religion in Japan and China Review Essay Example Religion in Japan and China Review Essay Example Nowadays, the study of Chinese and Japanese cultures is not only of academic interest. The Far East has a special and unique place in today’s world permeated by the processes of globalization and modernization. The technological civilization of the West has penetrated the East, changed a lot in the cultural sphere, and realigned social relations that have been taking shape for thousands of years. However, the East remains a bastion of tradition in opposition to the totality of modernization. These transformations have affected mostly external aspects of life such as the sphere of science and technology, but they are unable to shake the depth of culture, namely paradigms, laws, and principles underlying the human existence in the East. China and Japan have not lost their identity while borrowing the Western achievements. The diversity of the Chinese and Japanese cultures manifests itself mostly in the variety of religions of these countries. The comparison of the traditional religious systems of China and Japan shows that they both are based on similar religious and philosophical paradigms. Japan as an Independent Culture Japan was initially treated as a carrier of the Chinese culture and did not stand out as an independent cultural-historical type and civilization. This point of view existed in the cultural sciences until the second half of the 20th century. It appeared not only in the early historical and typological concepts, but also in the works of the later researchers. For example, Arnold Joseph Toynbee described the Japanese culture as a â€Å"filial† in relation to the Chinese culture, but he did not pay attention to the identity of the Japanese culture (Earhart, 2013). However, modern science recognizes the ethnic identity of Japan and comes close to the recognition of its cultural identity. The research thought has moved from trying to ignore the uniqueness of the Japanese culture to the recognition of the ethnic autonomy of China and Japan. The basic religions of China and Japan – Taoism and Shinto – are the basis for arguing that both countries are autonomous in the r eligious and cultural way. Taoism and Shinto as the Original Religious Paradigms Both Taoism and Shinto are national religions. However, if Shinto is inalienable from the Japanese culture, then Taoism has a certain missionary enthusiasm, through which it has spread in most countries of the Far East region. Shinto is characterized as a more archaic religion than Taoism. There are certain obvious manifestations of its archaism. Firstly, it is the lack of philosophical and theoretical formation. Secondly, Shinto has no formations at all, i.e. it has an immensely large integrity as compared with Taoism (Aston, 2015). The latter is a religion as well as a philosophy, but Shinto is a religion only. However, the division of religions into more or less archaic implies existence of some general timeline that is common to all phenomena of this kind. The phenomena, which are preserved as archaic or primitive ones, are usually compared with the early stages of the existence of complex phenomena. If one speaks about Shinto’s archaism based on the absence of theoretical constructs in this religion, then it would assume existence of some common law, according to which every traditional religion is obliged to give rise to its own philosophy sooner or later. The next significant difference is a distinction not only between Taoism and Shinto but also between Chinese and Japanese mentalities as a whole. It is about a phenomenal disinclination of traditional Japanese thinking towards abstraction and speculation. When it comes to comparing Eastern and Western thinking, rejection of abstract constructions is considered as the prerogative of the East. However, with regard to the Chinese culture, it would be correct to speak of unity and indivisibility of the theory and practice, the abstract and the concrete, the speculative and the empirical (Mou, 2012). Such integrity of the Chinese traditional thinking, which has been observed by the generations of Western thinkers since the 19th century, makes the Far Eastern mentality so different from the West (Mou, 2012). Even sciences in traditional China represent a relatively holistic and amorphous body of knowledge, which combines quite heterogeneous and diverse ideas and facts in the most direct way. Mythology, astrology, alchemy, and magic are inseparable from cosmology, astronomy, chemistry, and medicine respectively and so on. The treatise, which tells of common categories of the ontological character, may simultaneously be a tool to achieve physical immortality with the help of certain quite specific practices (Mou, 2012). In contrast, Japan just has borrowed similar categories from China since the period of antiquity, namely the Asuka and Nara periods (Aston, 2015). However, such categories have never acquired importance and significance they had in China. As a manifestation of the above regulations, the ancient texts have played an important role in Taoism and Shinto. One of the manifestations of the detachment of traditional Japanese thinking from theory is a pure practicality of all Old Japanese texts. Shinto religion has a collection of myths, ritual prayers, and even secular literature and poetry, which date back to ancient ritual chants (Aston, 2015). However, it has no similar persons to Lao-Tzu, Ge Hong, or Zhang Boduan. It means that Shinto is not familiar with a genre of the theoretical and practical treatise, which is very characteristic of Taoism and combines the ideas of ontological, anthropological, and ethical character. Neither Taoism nor Confucianism has a single kind of Bible, but both Chinese religions worshiped a number of books that make up a more or less universally recognized canon (Mou, 2012). As for the Shinto religion, it has no similar or any other canon (Aston, 2015). Taoist and Shinto anthropological ideas are also different. In the majority of Taoist traditions, a person is thought of as a psychophysical unity. The existence of the spirit depends on the existence of the body and the vital energy (or qi) acts as an intermediary between the two (Mou, 2012). Accordingly, improvement, the ultimate goal of which is achievement of immortality, means the change of moral and ethical qualities of the individual as well as transformation of the body. Classic religious Taoism understands transformation of a human being into the immortal as the preservation and improvement of corporeality (Mou, 2012). Other Taoist traditions represent the final stage of the transformation relating to the release from the corpse (or shijie) and the transformation of a person into a pure spirit (or shen) (Mou, 2012). It is important to emphasize the role of corporeality in both cases. In the first case, a man acquires immortality in the flesh, but in the second case the body acts as a stepping-stone to achieve immortality. In Shinto, the body and the spirit are related somewhat differently. On the one hand, the spirit (or kami) is not always the phenomenon of non-physical nature. For example, kami can be a bizarre wood or stone (Aston, 2015). The Japanese have borrowed an idea of the ki energy (or qi in the Chinese culture) from China (Aston, 2015). As a consequence, a man is thought of as a unity of the spiritual and the corporeal. On the other hand, a person becomes kami after death and the body does not matter in the process. Paradoxically, Shinto does not imply the bodily immortality at all. Eve ry person becomes kami after death according to Shinto religion (Aston, 2015). In contrast, immortality is a destiny of the few in Taoism. Immortality in Taoism is achieved only by individual efforts in both the field of ethics and mystical practices. Thus, one can assume that Shinto is a religion that regulates the life of the community. In turn, Taoism is a religion, which regulates the life of the community on the demotic level and allows one to achieve individual immortality on the elitist level (Mou, 2012). The main virtues of Taoism are the naturalness (or tzu-jan) and the non-action (or wuwei) (Mou, 2012). The meaning of these concepts varied through the ages. The concept of naturalness meant detachment and depersonalization for ancient Taoists. However, it could mean the following to passions and emotions since the Han era (Mou, 2012). The first interpretation aims at not only perfection of the individual, but also the benefit of the society. The second interpretation is essentially antisocial. As for Shinto, the ethics of this religion is not so much religious as magical; it is a kind of a set of taboos (Aston, 2015). The belief in the divinity of the ruler and the sanctity of the social hierarchy are among the foundations of the Shinto religion, but they are not the subject of a special ethical reflection. Features of Confucianism in China and Japan The fundamental principles of Confucianism in both China and Japan are patriotism, sacralization of the ruler, rigidity of the social hierarchy, conservatism, and the holiness of tradition. The essential difference between the Chinese and Japanese conservatism is that Confucianism is focused on the development, education, and improvement of the human society, but the autochthonous ethics of Japan is only aimed at preserving the existing order (Yang Tamney, 2011). In addition, it does not imply either individual ethical responsibility or transformation of the society and the individual. The ideas of self-cultivation began to be formed in Japan only under the Chinese influence (Earhart, 2013). Ethics in Confucianism as a unified system is inseparable from epistemology, theoretical knowledge, and development of specific literary, philosophical, historical, and poetic monuments. This unity of ethics and epistemology is expressed in the category of wen (Yang Tamney, 2011). The latter includes appropriate social behavior, appropriate creative-ordering principle, and familiarizing with the literary heritage and a set of books of the Confucian canon in the narrowest sense. As noted above, the Japanese thinking is less inclined to the theory than the Chinese one. Japan had neither â€Å"philosophical explosion† like the one that happened in China in the era of Zhou, nor ideological struggle of various schools of ethics (Kitagawa,1990). Studying of such Confucian literature as canonical books, treatises, chronicles, and poetry for didactic purposes in Japan was local in nature. Actually, the Japanese ethics remained much less connected with epistemology than the Chinese on e, even absorbing a number of Confucian ideas and categories (Earhart, 2013). The role of the theoretical and didactic text remains insignificant in Japan. With respect to both cultures, one can talk about the top-down dissemination of the Confucian ideology, from the aristocracy and intellectual elite to the lower strata of the population (Yang Tamney, 2011). However, there is one important difference. The officialdom was the ruling class throughout the history of China. In Japan, the power was in the hands of the military class, namely the samurai, since the 12th century and until the collapse of the traditional way of life in the 19th century (Earhart, 2013). Thus, Japanese Confucianism was primarily a military ideology. The perception of cultural and military principles is different in China and Japan. They were called wen and wu in China and ben and bu in Japan accordingly (Yang Tamney, 2011). Chinese Confucianism gives an unconditional preference to wen, suggesting wu is a necessary evil. The point of view of the Japanese varied between the recognition of the equivalence of the two principles and the condemnation of the cultural activity as detrimental to the service and fulfillment of duty. One of the key ideas of the Chinese social philosophy is the idea of the â€Å"Mandate of Heaven† (or tianming), which has never been accepted by the Japanese. Chinese Confucianism, despite its conservatism, admits the possibility of insurrection and rebellion even against the supreme power (Yang Tamney, 2011). This aspect is alien to the Japanese mentality. If the Chinese ethical ideal implies submission to a ruler as long as he himself is a carrier of proper ethical qualities, then the Japanese ideal implies absolute submission (Kitagawa, 1990). Hence, it may explain the unity of the Japanese imperial dynasty and the uniquely small number of uprisings of the lower classes throughout the Japanese history. Thus, Chinese Confucianism allows one to climb the social ladder. In turn, the kinship actually does not allow upward mobility in the traditional Japanese society. Both Chinese and Japanese ethics prescribes service and obedience to elders (Yang Tamney, 2011). The immediate environment as family or clan is on the first place for the Chinese. However, the ministry to a lord or a ruler is of higher priority for the Japanese even if it is to the detriment of the family. The specifics of the Chinese prioritization is due to both geographical conditions (large spatial extent of China) and Taoist-Confucian paradigm (Yang Tamney, 2011). Priorities of the Japanese ethics are due to, respectively, the small size of the inhabited territory and the specifics of the Japanese Confucianism, namely the cult of unconditional obedience and self-sacrifice (Kitagawa, 1990). Chinese and Japanese Buddhism Buddhism has had a much greater impact on the formation of statehood in Japan than in China. Buddhism entered China after the reunification of the country around the middle of the Han Dynasty. After the adoption of Buddhism as a state religion in China, it was periodically becoming closer to the authorities, alternating with the periods of disgrace (Schlütter, 2010). On the contrary, Buddhism played a special role in Japan at the stage of the country’s emergence as a political entity. Buddhism in Japan was a way to substantiate claims of the imperial house to the throne. The Buddhist community had the greatest political influence in the early stages of the Japanese history, namely the Nara and Heian periods (Schlütter, 2010). There are also the phenomena of Chan and Zen Buddhism, which are also different. Chan Buddhism is one of the peripheral components of the Chinese traditional culture, but its Japanese equivalent is one of the main paradigms of the Japanese culture. This is due to the fact that Chan Buddhism remains a relatively elitist phenomenon, which has affected only some principles of art on the general cultural level (Schlütter, 2010). In contrast, Zen Buddhism has become the ideology of the samurai, which were the ruling class in Japan (Schlütter, 2010). Thus, it has penetrated almost all levels of human activity in the Japanese culture. The Chinese and Japanese religions not only rely on largely similar religious-mythological and philosophical paradigms, but also differ extensively. The ideas of close connection of physical and spiritual components of human beings and the possibility of achieving bodily immortality are characteristic of the Chinese religions. In turn, the Japanese religions are characterized by an acute experience of the short duration of human existence and, consequently, the lack of practices to achieve individual immortality. The basis of social and ethical ideas of both religions and cultures is unified within the Confucian paradigm. However, Chinese Confucianism gives people the possibility to make assessment of the superior and, as a consequence, the right to an ideologically justified protest. Japanese Confucianism is characterized by humility and submissiveness to a lord or a ruler. Finally, a traditional Chinese religious, social, and ethical ideal is a scientist, scholar, poet, or writer who is capable of climbing the career ladder due to personal talent and knowledge or to go in search of the immortality. Not only Taoist mysticism, but also rationally oriented Confucianism recognizes immortality as an attribute of an ethically perfect person. In turn, a Japanese religious, social, and ethical ideal is a samurai or warrior who is loyal to his lord unreservedly regardless of the moral qualities of the latter.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Quotes By Congesswoman Shirley Chisholm

Quotes By Congesswoman Shirley Chisholm Shirley Chisholm was the first black woman to serve in the United States Congress. An early education expert, Shirley Chisholm was elected to the New York Legislature in 1964 and to Congress in 1968, where she was a founding member of both the Congressional Black Caucus and the National Womens Political Caucus. She ran for president in 1972, winning 152 delegates in the Democratic primary but losing the partys nomination to George McGovern. Shirley Chisholm served in Congress until 1983. During her congressional career, Shirley Chisholm was noted for her support for womens rights, her advocacy of legislation to benefit those in poverty, and her opposition to the Vietnam war. Selected Shirley Chisholm Quotations I was the first American citizen to be elected to Congress in spite of the double drawbacks of being female and having skin darkened by melanin. When you put it that way, it sounds like a foolish reason for fame. In a just and free society it would be foolish. That I am a national figure because I was the first person in 192 years to be at once a congressman, black and a woman proves, I think, that our society is not yet either just or free. I want history to remember me not just as the first black woman to be elected to Congress, not as the first black woman to have made a bid for the presidency of the United States, but as a black woman who lived in the 20th century and dared to be herself. Of my two handicaps being female put more obstacles in my path than being black. Ive always met more discrimination being a woman than being black. My God, what do we want? What does any human being want? Take away an accident of pigmentation of a thin layer of our outer skin and there is no difference between me and anyone else. All we want is for that trivial difference to make no difference. Racism is so universal in this country, so widespread and deep-seated, that it is invisible because it is so normal. We Americans have a chance to become someday a nation in which all racial stocks and classes can exist in their own selfhoods, but meet on a basis of respect and equality and live together, socially, economically, and politically. In the end, anti-black, anti-female, and all forms of discrimination are equivalent to the same thing - anti-humanism. My greatest political asset, which professional politicians fear, is my mouth, out of which come all kinds of things one shouldnt always discuss for reasons of political expediency. The United States was said not to be ready to elect a Catholic to the Presidency when Al Smith ran in the 1920s. But Smiths nomination may have helped pave the way for the successful campaign John F. Kennedy waged in 1960. Who can tell? What I hope most is that now there will be others who will feel themselves as capable of running for high political office as any wealthy, good-looking white male. At present, our country needs womens idealism and determination, perhaps more in politics than anywhere else. I am, was, and always will be a catalyst for change. There is little place in the political scheme of things for an independent, creative personality, for a fighter. Anyone who takes that role must pay a price. One distressing thing is the way men react to women who assert their equality: their ultimate weapon is to call them unfeminine. They think she is anti-male; they even whisper that shes probably a lesbian. ... rhetoric never won a revolution yet. Prejudice against blacks is becoming unacceptable although it will take years to eliminate it. But it is doomed because, slowly, white America is beginning to admit that it exists. Prejudice against women is still acceptable. There is very little understanding yet of the immorality involved in double pay scales and the classification of most of the better jobs as for men only. (1969) Tremendous amounts of talent are being lost to our society just because that talent wears a skirt. Service is the rent we pay for the privilege of living on this earth. (attributed to Chisholm; some sources attributed to Marian Wright Edelman) I am not anti-white, because I understand that white people, like black ones, are victims of a racist society. They are products of their time and place. The emotional, sexual, and psychological stereotyping of females begins when the doctor says, Its a girl. When morality comes up against profit, it is seldom profit that loses. To label family planning and legal abortion programs genocide is male rhetoric, for male ears. Which is more like genocide, I have asked some of my black brothers this, the way things are, or the conditions I am fighting for in which the full range of family planning services is available to women of all classes and colors, starting with effective contraception and extending to safe, legal terminations of undesired pregnancies at a price they can afford? Women know, and so do many men, that two or three children who are wanted, prepared for, reared amid love and stability, and educated to the limit of their ability will mean more for the future of the black and brown races from which they come than any number of neglected, hungry, ill-housed and ill-clothed youngsters. Pride in ones race, as will simple humanity, supports this view. It is not heroin or cocaine that makes one an addict, it is the need to escape from a harsh reality. There are more television addicts, more baseball and football addicts, more movie addicts, and certainly more alcohol addicts in this country than there are narcotics addicts. Sources Chisholm, Shirley. The Good Fight. Harper Collins, 1973. Chisholm, Shirley. Unbought and Unbossed. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1970. Vaidyanathan, Rajini. Before Hillary Clinton, there was Shirley Chisholm. BBC, 26 January 2016, https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-35057641. Winslow, Barbara. Shirley Chisholm: Catalyst for Change. Routledge, 2013.